Mycology-Introduction | Detailed Revision Notes for NEET-PG

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Study of fungi

Fungus= makes(greek) meaning edible fungus

Fungi

Eukaryotic- possess all cell organelles

Have a rigid cell wall composed of chitin, beta- glucans and polysaccharides

Their CM consists of ergosterol instead of cholesterol

Unicellular/ multicellular

Lack chlorophyll

Divide by asexual and/sexual means

Classification

  1. Morphological

yeast

Yeast-like

molds

dimorphic

Round to oval cells

Repeated incomplete budding leads to the formation of a chain of elongated cells

known as pseudohyphae

Long branching filaments(hyphae)which may be septate/nonseptate and grow continuously to form mycelium(aerial/vegetative)

They exist as molds at 25°C(environment) and yeast at 37°C (human tissue)

Reproduce by budding

Reproduce by budding

Reproduce by different type

Of sexual and asexual spores

Budding and spore formation

Ex- cryptococcus neoformans

       saccharomyces cerevisiae

Ex- candida(blastospore)

Candida albicans (chlamydospores)

Ex- Dermatophytes(asexual aerial spores- Macroconidia and microconidia)

Aspergillus

Penicillium(sexual ascospores and asexual conidiospores)

Rhizopus(sexual zygospores and asexual sporangiospore)

Mucor,etc

Ex- Histoplasma capsulatum

Blastomyces dermatitidis

Penicillium marneffei

Sporothrix schenckii

Coccidiodes(arthrospores)

  1. Toxonomical- based on production of sexual spores

Phylum

zygomycota

Phylum

ascomycota

Phylum

basidiomycota

Phylum

deuteromycota

Produce sexual spores

k/a zygospores

Produce sexual spores

K/a ascospores

Produce sexual spores

k/a basidiospores

Sexual state absent or

Not yet identified

E.g. Rhizopus and Mucor

E.g. aspergillus

E.g. cryptococcus

E.g.

  1. Classification of Fungal disease

Superficial

mycoses

Subcutaneous

mycoses

Systemic

mycoses

Opportunistic

mycoses

Fungal infections

involving skin, hair, nails

and mucosa

Fungal infection of skin,

Subcutaneous tissue, and

Sometimes bone

Fungal infections involving

multiple organs

Inhalation of spores are carried to the lungs(pulmonary infection) and then spreads to different organs(systemic manifestation)

 

Fungal infections caused by fungi found as human commensals which acts as human pathogens in case of low immunity

Tinea Versicolor

Tinea nigra

Piedra

Dermatophytosis

Mycetoms

Sporotrichosis

Chromoblastomycosis

Rhinosporidiosis

Histoplasmosis

Blastomycosis

Coccidioidomycosis

paracoccidioidomycosis

Candidiasis Cryptococcosis Zygomycosis Aspergillosis Penicilliosis Pneumocystosis

  1. Fungi v/s bacteria

 

Bacteria

Fungi

size

0.3-2µ

3-10µ

Cell type

prokaryote

eukaryote

Reproduce by

Binary fission

Mitosis and meiosis

Ribosomes

70s

80s

Cell membrane

No sterol

ergosterol

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